As of September 29, 2016, visa-exempt foreign nationals who fly to or transit through Canada are expected to have an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA). Exceptions include U.S. citizens and travellers with a valid Canadian visa. Canadian citizens, including dual citizens and Canadian permanent residents, with valid Permanent Resident cards, need not apply for an eTA. People who have an expired Permanent Resident card or one that is expiring within the next nine months, should apply for a new PR card as soon as possible to avoid issues with travel plans.
Until September 29, 2016, travellers who do not have an eTA can board their flight, as long as they have appropriate travel documents. During this leniency period, border services officers will permit travellers arriving without an eTA into Canada as long as they meet the other requirements to entering the country.